WEB DESIGN

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A Web interface is a complex mix of text, links, graphic elements, formatting, and other aspects that affect the Web’s usability. Instead of spending time to explain how to use interface, it is better to take advantage of the self-describing information of interface elements to dominantly display the using process of the software, at the same time, Interface performance and behavior must be consistent with user actions habits and mental models[21]. In Web design, standards-based design has the following advantages: download and read faster, better accessibility, more conducive to search engine rankings, adaptability, easy to develop and maintain it. In a word, standardized Web can enhance the usability and significantly enhance the user experience. Consequently, Web design entails a broad set of activities for addressing these diverse aspects: information architecture design, readability design, search design and page design.

A. Information Architecture Design

be able to navigate through it to find what they want. Specially, organization systems are composed of organization schemes and organization structures. Navigation system plays a major role in shaping our experiences on the Web. It provides access to information in a way that enhances understanding, reflects brand, and lends to overall credibility of a site. And ultimately, Web navigation and the ability to find information have a financial impact for stakeholders[23]. A navigational mechanism is a link or group of links that behave in a similar way and have a similar appearance. Links and label names mute are specific; make sure users can easily understand your navigational labels.

B. Readability Design

With a few exceptions, people visit the Web for its utility, not its beauty. User chooses clarity over confusion. The Web is a user-directed medium, where people adopt informationseeking strategies to save time. They tend not to seek information in a linear fashion. Instead, they rely on the visual cues that give off the strongest signal that their answer is nearby. People direct their attention to these areas and ignore everything else. So, write for the way people read on the Web. Design Web’s content to match human behavior and tailor it for optimum scannability and comprehension. Use simple language, out of respect for users’ time and reading skills, keep Web’s writing simple and concise. Three guidelines for better Web writing: skip the jargon, avoid acronyms, and bar sarcasm, subtle word play[24]. Artistic elements such as typography and color schemes play an important part in making a good first impression with website[5].

Typography gives people a feeling for your company and conveys information about what they can do on your site. Different fonts can signify whimsy or gravity, and point size and color can emphasize content. Sustaining positive impressions throughout the site means choosing the type and colors that work best on the Web. Four top guidelines for type: use common fonts sized at or above 10 points, avoid busy backgrounds, use black text on white backgrounds, keep moving, all-cap, and graphical text to a minimum. When choosing a font for your website, make sure to opt for those that are available on your users’ computers and browsers. Limit the number of font styles on your site and apply them consistently. Along with the right typeface and size, the right color contrast ensures legibility and readability on your site.

C. Search Design

Search is such a prominent part of the Web user experience that people have strong expectations for how it should work. Search is one of the most important design elements on a website. User wants the search on websites to work like that of their favorite major search engine. Given how ingrained Search is, avoid invoking a user’s mental model of search for other interactions. Users are now forming mental models that they expect to apply across the Web. The No. 1 guideline for search result pages design is to mimic the search result pages on the major Web-wide search engines. Provide a linear list of search results, with the most recommended on the top. Usually the search engine results page should be sorted by relevance, and no other options should be made available, since they will only confuse the user.

For some types of sites, however, it makes sense to make other sorting criteria available. Users almost always turn to search engines with a new problem but almost never read beyond the first page of results, so search engine optimization (SEO) should be one of the most important parts of Internet strategy. There are three major classes of “white hat” SEO techniques [25]: linguistic SEO, architectural SEO, and reputation SEO.

D. Page Design

Page design includes two parts, the first is graphic, and the second is HTML coding. Graphic design focuses on visual presentation. Experience design encompasses all two of these categories, as well as properties that affect the overall user experience (download time, ads, popup windows, and so on)[26]. HTML coding is very important in page design. The HTML coding design should support of Web standards and browser compatibility. Web standards are a number of standards set developed by the W3C and other standardization organizations, in order to create and explain the Web content. Describe the structure of Web pages with the structured standard language (such as: XHTML, or XML); format the page presentation with the standard presentation language; define the behavior of Web pages with the standard behavior-controlling language. Specifically: (1) Separation of structure and presentation. HTML documents save the content and structure, and CSS (Cascading Style Sheet, Cascading Style Sheets) documents control the performance of the documents. (2) Using XHTML. XHTML1.0 Strict and valid document type (doctype) can create a strict website.˄3˅Using CSS. The structured and semantic XHTML describes the Web document; CSS efficiently controls the layout[27]. In the CSS design process, designers must fully understand CSS syntax and model, instead of relying only on its presentation. From Web pages towards Web applications, Web browser becomes an application platform [28].

The browsers are in a wide range. According to the statistics data in December 2009 [29] , the current widely used browsers are: IE8(13.5%), IE7(12.8%), IE6(10.9%), Firefox(46.4%), Chrome(9.8%), Safari(3.6%), Opera(2.3%) and etc. Therefore, the browser compatibility problems are considered necessarily in the Web design. Due to differences in understanding and support for Web standards, the same page may be interpreted to different results by different browsers. Without a browser compatible design the website may be serious usability problems through some browsers. In information architecture the focus is on the organization, navigation, labeling, and search systems that offer accessibility to the end user[22]. With information architecture coupled with good user interface design principles, there is hope that the users will be better able to realize what information resides in a large website and then

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