websites are not only be accessed by computers with a large screen. They were mostly accessed via mobile devices such as tablets and smartphones that relatively have smaller screen size. Almost every website has their different style and visual appearance concerning content and information delivery. Even though they were visually looked different, they were mostly designed and developed by using one of one column, two columns, or three columns layout. The way to properly deliver content and information on a smaller screen size becomes a challenging matter. Responsive Web Design approach allows a single web page to be differently visualized based on the screen size of the accessing device. Such layout changing may affect the amount of information to be displayed on the screen, hence affecting the effectiveness and efficiency of information delivery in a web page. This study compares the effectiveness and efficiency of a web page that is being displayed on a computer screen, tablet, and smartphones. How the implementation of Materials Design Guidelines and User-Centered Design approaches in the design process may affect the effectiveness and efficiency of content and information delivery of a web page on smaller screens were also evaluated and presented. This research shows that User Centered Design and Material Design Guidelines improve the effectiveness and efficiency of content delivery on both tablet and smartphone. Materials Design Guidelines provide better usability improvement than User Centered Design approach for the smartphone screen regarding content delivery efficiency for web pages designed in three columns layout.
There are several modeling techniques: user roles, user segments, extreme characters , personas, etc. User roles and user segments are not particularly useful for developing user scenarios and for accommodating different users in a single project. Extreme characters is not a method that makes possible the characterization of real system users. By comparison, personas is a better modeling method based on the identification of characters who typify the system end user
Based on the type and the analysis for user research, there are two main methods to create persona: qualitative persona and quantitative persona. Qualitative research is the method that discovers new things from the small scale sample. The methods of qualitative persona research include: user interview, field investigation and usability testing. Through qualitative research, get the objectives, behavior and views of user. Quantitative research is the method that tests and proves certain things through a large number of samples. The methods of quantitative research include: questionnaire, log file analysis and user relationship management analysis and etc. The new way combined quantitative into qualitative is to create persona, which verifies and improves qualitative persona through quantitative methods. Through the quantitative research, verify the user groups divided by users’ quality. Persona is described with the goal, behavior, views, and the demographic characteristics.