Graduates are expected to be skilled across disciplines and provide holistic solutions. Hence, scaffolding is crucial as transfer of learning does not occur naturally and teachinglearning strategies found to be effective for experts may not be adopted similarly for novice learners. We hypothesize that if we can help students to model in relation to the ecosystem, they should be able to identify or discover opportunities, strategically assess technologies and create new innovations and interactions for e-commerce Websites. For goal-based scaffolding, we use technology-assisted design thinking, embedded formative assessments. We study more effective ways to develop: a) skills useful to the design and development of sustainable Web systems and services and possibly sustainable smart services in the future by relating business to technology and impacts on society; b) epistemic agency for lifelong learning.
Increasing competitiveness in science and technology development in several countries, most notably in terms of smart cities and robotics, have necessitated new approaches to product and service design. For example, in the IEEE Smart Cities (SC) initiative , the aim is to create more sustainable futures through technological innovations. Similarly,  aims to increase quality of life. They envision it as peopledriven/centric emphasizing on green living, efficiency, ubiquity and sustainability. Consequently, to equip students to be able to design such technological innovations, instructors need to equip students for transformative learning. The question is how? We look at diverse disciplines.
Gaynor , Vice-President of the IEEE Technology, Engineering and Management Society (TEMS), highlights skills expected of graduates: Strategic Technology Analysis and Management processes, Innovation, Entrepreneurship, Project Management, Organizational Interfaces and Excellence in Execution. Furthermore, for creative solutions,  from the learning sciences, characterizes creativity as involving nonmechanistic analogical substitution, incremental knowledge and skill refinement processes and goal-directed reflection, backtracking and refinements to increase consideration of alternatives and consequently elaboration and evaluation of these alternatives in relation to the learning or task goal.
From an educational perspective,  regard learning as experiential, via learning-by-doing, driven by goals. Furthermore, in ’s review of literature, they find that formative assessments (progressive assessment during the course), is one of the most effective means to obtain information about students’ knowledge and the depth of their understanding of subject matter. In essence, it enables students’ activities to generate evidence that can be synthesized back into formative feedback.